Filter
Blog

Deja Vu All Over Again

Yogi Berra famously had a quote for every occasion. If asked to describe the effect of the U.S. Supreme Court’s February 9 stay of the U.S. EPA’s Clean Power Plan (CPP), I’d bet he’d say, “It’s déjà vu all over again.” The post-McCain-Lieberman and Waxman-Markey world of failed federal climate policy was one of uncertainty…

Blog

The Next Quantum Leap in Electric Efficiency—Game On

Ten years ago, the most aggressive electric efficiency efforts in the country were achieving first-year electric savings of about 1.0 percent of annual sales. Today, at least five different states have—or plan to—double those levels of savings, achieving between 2.0 and 2.5 percent first-year savings annually. Since 2006, nationwide customer efficiency spending has nearly quadrupled,…

Blog

Bring Your Economy into the 21st Century: Tackling CO2 with Cap-and-Invest

As they consider how to comply with EPA’s Clean Power Plan (CPP), many states are reaching a growing consensus that mass-based programs with regional trading—“cap-and-trade”—could drive compliance costs down. A related mass-based approach—one with which states may be less familiar—is known as “cap-and-invest.” It uses the revenues from allowance sales to achieve further emissions reductions…

Blog

Emissions Trading in RGGI: What Does it Mean for China?

China launched seven pilot emissions trading systems (ETS) in 2013, as testing grounds for a national ETS. With the Joint Presidential Statement on Climate Change, China confirmed its plan to launch a national ETS in 2017, and work has already begun to develop the necessary legislation. RAP led a team of international experts in assessing…

Blog

美国区域温室减排行动的碳交易制度:对中国有何意义?

中国于2013年开始了7个碳排放交易试点工作,作为建立全国碳交易体系的试验田。最近在中美首脑气候变化联合声明中,中方肯定了于2017年启动全国碳排放交易体系的计划,并在立法层面取得了一些进展。 睿博能源智库(RAP )协专家团队为广州上海两地碳交易管理办法的制定提出了一些建议。其中许多建议对中国建立全国碳排放交易体系仍然具有借鉴意义。特别是美国区域温室减排行动(RGGI),美国东北部碳排放总量控制和交易体系的一些特点值得中国在设计全国碳排放交易体系时参考。睿博能源智库的高级项目主任David Farnsworth于9月10-11日在杜克昆山大学举办的中美气候变化行动与合作论坛上就这一主题分享了他的见解。 RGGI于2009年1月正式启动,对美国9个州25兆瓦以上发电厂的碳排放进行控制。跟其他的碳排放总量控制和交易体制类似,RGGI设定了碳排放总量目标,每个控排发电厂需要清缴充足的配额用于抵扣自身排放,配额可以进行交易从而为发电厂以最低成本履行减排义务提供了灵活性。 RGGI具有创新的地方在于: 总量控制和投资:RGGI与先前总量控制和碳排放交易制度的最大不同之处在于将几乎全部的碳排放配额采用拍卖的方式进行分配并将拍卖取得的收入投资于终端能效、可再生能源和其他对消费者有利的项目中。今天,超过一半以上的拍卖收入用于能效项目,这些项目能够减少排放,节约用户用电成本并在区域范围内提供更大的经济效益。从2008 到2014年,RGGI 各成员州的能效项目经费从5.75亿美元增长到17亿美元—在短短四年内增长了两倍。 与其他能源和环境政策相协调:RGGI最终的目标是在各成员州鼓励更清洁的能源消费结构。要以最低的成本完成减排目标要求在不同的策略之间进行协调,包括采用更高效的发电调度、减少化石燃料的消费、加大对可再生能源和终端能效的投资,以及实施综合的能源和环境政策。(详情请参看报告“低碳电力监管:巴西,欧盟和美国的国际经验”) 项目回顾:RGGI 按照2005年谅解备忘录(MOU)的约定,于2012年完成了第一次项目回顾。为了更好地反映电力行业当前的排放水平并进一步加大减排力度,9个州的碳排放总量从之前的1.65亿吨减少到2014年的0.91亿吨。2015到2020年,这个排放总量还以每年2.5% 的速度递减。虽然碳排放总量有明显的缩减(大约在原基础上减少了45%),一个公开透明的项目回顾过程允许利益相关方参与决策并为发电厂适应新政做出了必要的准备。 区域合作:RGGI不是一个为9个州服务的项目,而是9个不同的项目。由于机制的设计使得各个项目之间密切关联可以作为一个项目来看待。RGGI 的谅解备忘录(MOU)和规则模板(Model Rule)使得各州可以一前一后协力地运行独立的项目,然后在区域范围统计排放量、出卖排放权。这些规则加上有效利用公共平台,例如配额管理、集中拍卖、统一的市场监管等,使得各州能够联合行动。 **This post is also available in English at Emissions Trading in RGGI: What Does it Mean for China?

Blog

The Clean Power Plan: Just Say, “No Regrets”

Much of the controversy associated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) proposed Clean Power Plan has to do with disputes about whether the agency has the authority to set greenhouse gas emissions limits for power plants based only on what is achievable “inside the fence” of regulated power plants, or both inside and outside…

Blog

Tracking Renewable Energy for Compliance with the Clean Power Plan

Since the rule’s proposal in June 2014, Clean Power Plan compliance discussions have been weighing the potential benefits of regional versus single-state approaches, and balancing possible lower program costs and administrative burdens against state concerns over compromising sovereignty. More recently, discussions have focused on “hybrid” state/regional approaches, in which states largely retain their autonomy, but engage…