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EU’s buildings directive should give EV owners the right to a smart plug

by Jaap Burger Luka De Bruyckere on

The electrification of mobility is in full swing. As electric vehicles (EV) become ever more popular, public charging points are spreading – their numbers have doubled in the last two years in the EU. But public charging points alone will not be enough to power the transition to electrified mobility, we need more (smart) connections…

Worüber keiner reden will: Der bevorstehende Abschied vom Gasnetz

by Andreas Jahn Barbara Saerbeck on

Die Gasindustrie investiert aktuell, was das Zeug hält. 2019 flossen rund 2,5 Milliarden Euro in den Aus- und Neubau der deutschen Gasnetze (BNetzA Monitoring-Bericht). Bis 2030 sind laut Netzentwicklungsplan Gas allein für die Ferngasnetze weitere 2,2 Milliarden Euro vorgesehen, wobei die Ferngasnetzbetreiber sogar Investitionen in Höhe von 7,8 Milliarden Euro für nötig halten. Die Zahlen…

It’s Time to Consider the (Non-Pipeline) Alternatives

by Max Dupuy on

For many years, the topic of regulation of gas distribution utilities has been far from the limelight and has not received the kind of attention that electric utility regulation attracts. But there are an increasing number of reasons to take a fresh look at gas utility regulation. Most importantly, climate goals call for phasing out…

分时上网电价:无现货市场省份的一种选择

by Regulatory Assistance Project on

国家发改委最近发布的《关于进一步完善分时电价机制的通知》中(以下简称“通知”),包括了对尚未建立电力现货市场省份的指示。对于这些省份,通知要求签订的月度和年度合同中的购电价格可在一天内甚至在不同季节有相应变化。 该政策提供了一个可以改善对非现货市场省份发电机组激励措施的机会,让这些省份发电机组的补偿能够随着一天各时段甚至季度而变化——也就是说,根据预设的时间段和价格水平为发电机提供“随时间变化”的发电上网价格,这样的政策将有助于提高系统效率、降低成本并支持可变可再生能源并网。 本文简要概述了对发电机组的分时上网定价,以及在当前非现货市场省份的监管和市场环境下,分时上网电价如何在实践中运作。本文认为,在那些尚未实施电力现货市场的省份,实行分时上网电价的改革可能为过渡到更有效的金融合同和更高效的电力调度提供了机会。最终,实施精心设计的现货市场可能是所有省份的最佳选择,但这里讨论的分时上网定价会是一个有用的渐进步骤。 简述 中国在21世纪初提出过分时上网电价理念,但并未得到广泛实施。2005年,由于实施竞价上网政策的挑战,国家发改委发布了《上网电价管理暂行办法》(以下简称“暂行办法”)其中提到将行政设定的上网电价作为临时手段[1],逐步实行峰谷分时、丰枯季节上网电价等制度。 2015 年颁布的电改“ 9 号文”促进了多个省份开展现货市场试点。对于未开展现货市场的省份,无论何时发电,电网公司通常都以相同价格支付发电商。这意味着发电商(和其他资源)并没有根据系统需求获得发电补偿,极大地限制了系统效率的提升和波动性可再生能源并网。 近十年来,随着中国发电结构的变化,每小时发电的边际成本发生了显著变化。在水电、风电和太阳能发电处于边际发电的时间段,边际发电成本通常很低。在傍晚时分,用电需求高,太阳能发电量低,边际成本通常会很高。在边际成本变化很大的电力系统中,向发电商支付一个统一固定价格,并不能为其提供强大激励以支持高效调度或做出高效投资决策。向分时上网定价转变(最终目标是设计良好的现货市场) 可能有助于改善这些激励措施。 分时电价如何运作? 原则上,设计良好的现货市场代表了发电上网定价的最高效形式,并允许上网电价根据当前情况而变化。我们在这里讨论的分时上网电价将适用于那些还没有现货市场的省份。 对于尚不具备小时和15分钟现货市场定价的省份,可以采用与零售用户分时电价类似的机制,实行分时上网电价。在这一机制下,电力交易中心将利用基于对发电成本估计得出的因子,将月度和年度合同中的购电价格转换为各个特定时段的价格进行结算。 为了计算这些分时因子,省级定价部门可以基于电网公司历史或预计系统边际成本和平均成本,使用一个价格区间(如高峰时段)的平均边际系统发电成本与所有价格区间(如一个月)的平均系统发电成本之间的比率。例如,当月平均发电成本为0.30元/千瓦时,高峰期边际发电成本(平均)为0.40元/千瓦时,非峰期边际成本(平均)为0.25元/千瓦时,则峰期因子为1.33,非峰期因子为0.83。假如某发电商的有效合同价格为0.28元/千瓦时,则峰时发电为其支付0.37元/千瓦时,非峰时发电支付0.23元/千瓦时[2]。 分时上网定价与国家发改委的分时电价政策中的有关原则相一致。发电商在电力系统面临供电限制的高峰时段得到的发电补偿应高于非高峰时段。这种方法将支持向经济调度的转变,在经济调度下,成本较低的发电机组在系统价格较低的时期运行,成本较高的发电机组在系统价格较高的时期运行。如果不配合调度的变化,成本较高的发电商可能在上网电价低于其运行成本的时段运行。 这种向经济调度的转变要求电网公司根据热效率和估计的燃料价格来进行机组安排,调度火电和核电机组,根据预测来调度风能和太阳能发电,使用算法或优化来调度水力发电。我们的理解是,电网公司拥有经济调度的技术实力,并且这些年朝着这个方向有着显著的进展,但是发电商补偿(特别是固定的发电上网电价)内在的激励,将继续成为在非现货市场省份实现经济调度的绊脚石。通过为仅在峰值时段和季节运行的发电商增加补偿,分时上网电价能够帮助缓解这一阻碍。 转型机制 2005年国家发改委出台的“暂行办法” 将分时上网电价作为向竞争性电价转变的桥梁,与之类似,分时上网电价可以成为非现货市场省份向现货市场价格过渡的机制。实行分时上网电价还可以让发电商获得管理分小时电价的经验。 分时上网电价也将提供一种有用的储能补偿电价机制。回到上一节的例子,基于成本的储能价格可以使得储能在高峰期放电获得0.40元/kWh的电价补偿,在非峰时支付0.25元/kWh的电价进行充电。这使得尚未实行现货市场定价的省份,能够采取一致的办法,根据系统成本对发电和储能进行补偿。 从西北电力市场开始 西北电网地区可以率先试点分时上网电价。到目前为止,该地区的现货市场尚未成熟,大多省还没建立现货市场,中长期电力市场的参与度相对较高,且西北地区对发展储能的电价机制越来越感兴趣。在还没建立现货市场的省,分时上网电价可以作为西北地区向现货市场过渡的桥梁。 本文首发于南方能源观察(2021年10月20日)   [1] 国家发改委关于印发电价改革实施办法的通知,发改价格[2005]514号,附件一《上网电价管理暂行方法》https://www.ndrc.gov.cn/xxgk/zcfb/tz/200506/t20050613_965813.html?code=&state=123. [2] 有效的合同电价,是指在中长期合同市场竞价时,基于发电商可接受的价差范围,最终支付发电商的价格。本方法假定月度和年度发电合同价格可覆盖平均发电成本。

Europe’s gas decarbonisation package: Putting new wine in old wineskins?

by Megan Anderson Jan Rosenow on

Putting new wine in old wineskins is a timeworn saying first mentioned in the Bible. Doing so is not a good idea we are taught: ‘the wine will burst the skins, and the wine is lost and the skins as well’ (Mark 2:22). Going against this advice, however, is precisely what is suggested we do…

Getting off the fossil fuel roller coaster

by Bram Claeys Dominic Scott on

When the global economy picks up steam, so do commodity prices. Gas demand bouncing back to pre-Covid levels started a new upswing in the price cycle. We are seeing classic market dynamics at work: demand outstrips supply and prices rise. Electricity and gas prices are skyrocketing from last year’s pandemic-induced depths, leaving people reeling. Experts…

Participating in Power: A Practical Guide to Utility Resource Plans for Local Governments

by David Farnsworth Jake Duncan on

To meet 21st century decarbonization and social equity priorities, utilities need to transform the way they plan power sector investments. One of the most important opportunities to encourage these changes is to become an effective participant in the development of a utility integrated resource plan (IRP). An IRP shapes the thinking of utility executives, regulators,…

China looks to apply flexible time-of-use electricity tariffs nationwide

by Max Dupuy on

One major challenge for decarbonisation is mobilising consumers to play a bigger role in the clean energy transition. As consumers turn to electric appliances, including electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps, there are increasing opportunities for them to contribute to grid flexibility at low cost. This flexibility is essential to support the integration of variable…

Rebalancing energy levies is a practical way to increase the electrification of heat

by Jan Rosenow Richard Lowes on

Every year households in the UK install about 1.7 million gas boilers. In May, the Heating and Hotwater Industry Council reported that 2021 looks to be a record year for gas boiler sales, with year-to-date sales up 41 per cent from 2020. So far, low-carbon heating occupies a small — although growing — niche in…

Trust, not control: Germany, EVs and the power of consumer choice

by Andreas Jahn Jaap Burger Jan Rosenow on

‘How electric vehicles endanger electricity supply’ rang the alarm in a major German newspaper in 2018. The author warned that the local electricity networks would collapse if people returned from work in the evening and all charged their cars at the same time, a fear that kept many network operators up at night. The government…