Energy efficiency can help reduce emissions of all air pollutants, alleviating air quality compliance issues facing many states. Ken Colburn illustrated the complementary nature of energy efficiency at the Second Annual South-central Partnership for Energy Efficiency as a Resource (SPEER) Summit in Austin, TX. As regulators prepare to meet the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) upcoming 111(d) “carbon pollution standards” for power plants, they should also be thinking about the interaction between air quality and energy efficiency. Using energy efficiency, instead of solely relying on traditional pollution controls, can cut the cost of reducing air pollution health impacts by approximately 33 percent. Mr. Colburn also provided specific recommendations on how regulators can prepare for the EPA standards. He noted that, while states will address 111(d) in their state implementation plans, regional solutions may make the most sense. States can prepare for 111(d) compliance by identifying energy efficiency measures to date, identifying and communicating preferred policy directions to the EPA, as well as ensuring effective communication between their public utility commission, distribution companies, and environmental quality agencies.