Article 7 of the European Union’s Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) requires individual member states to meet energy saving targets largely through end use energy efficiency by the end of 2020. These mandatory targets are based on average annual energy consumption in the period 2010 through 2012. Using Germany’s plan to comply with Article 7 as an example, Eoin Lees discusses the calculation of the EED target for each member state, reviews eligible measures, examines the role of building regulations, and highlights the issue of free riders. Mr. Lees concludes that Germany has a shortfall in energy savings, which is likely to grow once the issue of free riders is addressed. This presentation was made at a workshop organized by the Coalition for Energy Savings.