China faces serious air quality problems, and a public that is increasingly engaged and concerned about the effects of air pollution. Driven by a doubling of coal consumption since 2002, almost all 113 key cities in China exceed World Health Organization and China’s own ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 and PM10. China’s economic growth is also occurring at a time when we know more about pollution and its public health and environmental effects. Unlike the west, China does not have the luxury of approaching pollution problems on a pollutant-by-pollutant basis. It must not only reduce all pollutants simultaneously, it must achieve this at a trajectory not previously achieved by any country. Through research completed by universities like Tsinghua, Renmin, and Peking Normal, cost curves have been developed to show which air pollution control measures are the most cost-effective and efficacious. As in other countries, energy efficiency emerges as the most cost-effective measure to reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. China has already introduced coal caps in Beijing and Tianjin and plans significant expansion thereof. Also, all 113 of China’s key cities are required to develop and submit multi-pollutant air quality plans to show how air quality in these cities will be improved to meet China’s Grade II air quality standards by 2015. As part of the event “China’s Clean Coal Strategy” hosted by French think tank China Institute, RAP Senior Associate Chris James spoke on current situation in China.