Demand management has the potential to dramatically reduce the cost of integrating higher quantities of variable renewable energy resources (VRE) into the grid. In a presentation at Utrecht University in the Netherlands, Mike Hogan encouraged the use of energy efficiency to reduce the amount of generation needed to meet demand and the use of demand response to shift load from peak periods to those of lesser demand. Flexibility plays a key role on both sides of this equation.Mr. Hogan also explores ten strategies for mitigating the challenges created by the steep afternoon ramping requirements associated with an increase in distributed solar photovoltaics. These existing technologies can be implemented to flatten the load curve, not only enabling greater renewable integration, but also enhancing system reliability and reducing capital and fuel costs. As this duck-shaped curve flattens into a more streamlined “flying” position, the resulting load is easier to serve than the projected load would have been, even without the addition of renewable resources.