At the first “National Summit on Integrating Energy Efficiency and Smart Grid,” senior advisor Mike Hogan discussed the role of demand response in wholesale and retail markets. Increased demand flexibility through ‘smart’ grid investments is a cost-effective alternative to curtailing low-carbon sources, but coordination between regional market operators, the distribution utility, and customers will be key to unlocking flexibility. Mr. Hogan emphasized that responsive demand – in both directions – is a cost-effective solution to both curtailment and excessive price volatility.