On October 24, 2012, Director of European Programmes Richard Cowart presented RAP’s recommendations for achieving large-scale energy efficiency goals at the German Energy Efficiency Initiative (DENEFF) conference in Berlin, Germany. Using a case study of “Efficiency Vermont” and other global experiences as a backdrop, he focused on a model with a free-standing energy efficiency (EE) company or third-party administrator of EE programs. The model features clear energy savings obligations (ESOs), a capable and motived efficiency entity, stable funding, and quality control. Mr. Cowart emphasized the ability of ESOs to remove market barriers, enable energy providers to play a key role in other parts of an EE policy package, to lower system costs and, as a result, to lower energy bills.