In its hotly-debated Clean Power Plan (CPP), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a rule requiring a 30 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from power plants below 2005 levels. Each state must meet an individual emission performance goal through a compliance plan that it may tailor to its specific requirements. In this insightful presentation to the American Public Power Association (APPA), Ken Colburn provides extensive guidance on the issues and decisions facing the states, as well as recommendations for crafting an approvable, least-cost, least-risk plan.By assessing the steps a state has already taken to reduce emissions, thoroughly exploring compliance measures, and applying best practices to project future conditions, states can develop an approvable compliance plan that best meets its own needs. Mr. Colburn encourages officials to consider policy and technology options that reach beyond the four building blocks for compliance set forth by the EPA, to leverage energy efficiency for a low-cost, low-risk solution, to explore multi-state, multi-pollutant plans, and to take advantage of the flexibility afforded CPP compliance plans. The CPP offers states a unique opportunity for energy, air, and environmental regulators to work together to rethink power sector regulation. Communication between the various stakeholders, neighboring states, and the regional EPA office will be critical as decision-makers weigh, for example, whether to take a rate- or mass-based approach, or a single-state versus a regional approach. The National Association of Clean Air Agencies’ encyclopedic reference work “Implementing EPA’s Clean Power Plan: A Menu of Options” can be a valuable resource in exploring compliance options and making well-informed decisions on the numerous issues associated with the CPP.