On September 20, 2012, RAP held a workshop for the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and the Public Utility Regulatory Authority. Conservation Resources Manager Tom Eckman of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) spoke to commissioners about integrating energy efficiency into Resource Planning. Mr. Eckman examined actual resource planning efforts undertaken by NPCC and the lessons they learned along the way. To start off the presentation, he took a step back to look at the six “eras” of power forecasting and resource planning since the mid-1930s, characterizing them by differences in their tools and underlying assumptions. Based on this past experience, he described how to use efficiency to address the current uncertainty in resource planning by developing scenarios to take into account varying plans and future market developments. He highlighted energy efficiency as a low-cost source of reserve margin, which reduces market exposure risk and may moderate wholesale price swings.