Residential coal burning has led to extended and unhealthy concentrations of fine particles in Krakow. At the invitation of the City of Krakow, RAP is working with the City and the regional environmental protection agency to develop strategies to improve air quality. These include a phase out of residential coal stoves, upgrading the thermal performance of building envelopes, and reducing building energy consumption. RAP is also advising the City on ways to develop an emissions inventory.