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Why Rate Design in New England Needs a Refresh

by David Littell Donna Brutkoski on

Looking ahead to 2030 and then beyond to 2050, the majority of New England states have set ambitious clean energy goals. The growing adoption of new technology empowers energy customers to play a direct role in making these goals happen and to make their own energy choices in ways not available 10 years ago. But…

Offshore-Windenergie als europäische Ressource

by Andreas Jahn Zsuzsanna Pató on

Die Stromerzeugung durch Offshore-Windkraftanlagen ist eine besondere Form des Strombezugs, weil es bisher nur wenige Erzeugungsanlagen und auch nur einzelne Stromleitungen gibt. Sogenannte Offshore-Netze – insbesondere zwischen den EU-Staaten – gibt es bisher nicht. Diese Tatsache birgt aber auch eine große Chance, da die Offshore-Energieerzeugung eine Schlüsseltechnologie für ein dekarbonisiertes Stromsystem in Europa darstellt. Dies…

Unlocking India’s clean energy potential through demand flexibility and distributed energy resources

by Dheer Patel on

India’s quest to strengthen the long ailing power distribution sector has largely revolved around proposals to restructure the sector and redesign retail tariffs with periodic financial bailouts. These proposals show promise in alleviating present issues. It becomes crucial, however, to deliberate and critique these ideas and proposals through different lenses, especially when the sector is…

Time for energy efficiency to be valued as a grid resource

by Samuel Thomas Filippos Anagnostopoulos on

What if you, as an electricity consumer, could get compensated fairly for the energy you did not consume? In the U.S., participants in pay-for-performance schemes are being paid incentives to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. Driven by the limited capacity of electricity networks and a willingness to innovate in order to get better value…

It is time to bring consumers on board the energy transition

by Zsuzsanna Pató on

Power systems are in the midst of profound transformation. More nations are striving to decarbonise their electricity grids and to electrify sectors previously powered primarily by fossil fuels such as heating and transport. To help weather this sea change, policymakers and power system operators have a rich resource at their disposal: consumers. They do not,…

Green urban freight: How to electrify our deliveries today

by Julia Hildermeier on

Every year, freight companies deliver four billion parcels containing online orders across the EU. With the ongoing pandemic, experts predict the market for express delivery will grow by more than $10 billion (€8.3 billion) by 2024. Freight and delivery volumes have been increasing for years and are responsible for a quarter of Europe’s transport emissions. Without…

Energy efficiency: Secret ingredient that can make Turkey’s energy transition a success

by Değer Saygin Jan Rosenow on

At a recent pan-European energy efficiency conference in Paris, representatives of a large energy service company shared the well-kept secret of how they source energy-efficient heating technology to install in Europe: They get it from Turkey. Even though Turkey may not come to mind as a global leader in energy efficiency, energy efficiency has been…

储能如何参与市场?

by Fredrich (Fritz) Kahrl Wang Xuan Max Dupuy on

正如世界上其他国家一样,中国电力行业要走向零碳发展的未来,需要有灵活性资源的支持。储能,特别是电化学储能,由于近年来成本大幅度降低,以及其多重应用价值,前景越来越光明。并网储能能够成本有效地发挥帮助可再生能源并网、提高剩余火电厂运行效率、提供调峰调频等辅助服务、管理电网阻塞、替代输配电设施、抑制价格波动等作用。根据CNESA储能项目库的统计,到2019年底,中国已投运储能项目累计装机32.3 GW, 其中抽水蓄能约30GW,电化学储能约1.6 GW。最近的一些研究发现,在可再生能源以低成本快速发展的情景下,到2030年,中国需要增加储能的累计装机容量到300GW以支持波动性可再生能源并网,从而以低成本降低碳排放。这样的愿景需要在储能友好的政策和市场的双重作用下才能实现。 今年八月底,国家发改委、国家能源局公开征求《关于开展“风光水火储一体化”“源网荷储一体化”的指导意见》意见的公告,在业界引起了广泛的反响。两个一体化提出要根据必要性和可行性优化储能规模,建立灵活高效互动的电力运行与市场体系,落实储能参与市场的机制。然而,中国现阶段无论是用户侧、发电侧或者电网侧储能,应用场景都比较单一,缺乏互相协调且系统优化的运行模式,对未来大规模发展储能形成了阻碍。从国际经验来看,电力现货市场为储能提供了可观的收益,是储能实现商业价值的主要渠道。我们在上一篇文章中,介绍了以光伏和风电为代表的波动性可再生能源参与电力市场的途径,这一篇短文中,主要分享加州独立系统运行商(CAISO)抽水蓄能以外的电储能参与市场模式,希望能为中国政策制定者提供借鉴。 电化学储能参与CAISO市场模式 美国联邦能源监管委员会(FERC)于2018年发布了Order 841, 要求RTO/ISO区域电力市场制定规则为储能公平参与电力市场扫清障碍。841法令规定在考虑物理和运行特征的基础上,允许电储能参与容量、电量、辅助服务市场,并基于市场价格对其服务进行相应的补偿。按照FERC的要求各ISO/RTO随后在现有的市场规则之上制定或者完善了电储能参与市场模式。其中,加州独立运行商(CAISO)在这方面的表现最为突出。截至2020年七月,CAISO有216MW并网运行的电池装机容量,在美国各区域电力批发市场中名列前茅,根据加州综合资源规划预计,CAISO到2030年会有15GW储能资源,其中主要(12GW以上)是电化学储能。这意味着10年后CAISO的储能可能是目前的50多倍,将会很大程度地改变CAISO电力系统的运行。 CAISO早在2012年就开始发展和贯彻储能参与市场模式以推动储能与其他资源公平竞争并获得合理补偿。CAISO主要通过非发电资源模式(NGR,Non-Generator Resource),允许储能资源参与双边容量市场,电能量市场和辅助服务市场。NGR的定义是 “具有连续运行区间,既可以发电又可以耗电的资源” 。现代的电池技术和储能控制系统已经可以支持从放电到充电的近实时切换,可以完成精确快速的响应,但是电池储能仍然受到充放电量的限制,这也是电池的特性决定的。在CAISO, NGR可以选择调频能源管理功能 (REM,Regulation Energy Management),在这种选择下,NGR能够更有效地参与日前调频市场,但不能同时参与电能量市场和运行备用市场。 另外,用户侧的储能(电表后面)也可以以单独或者集合的形式作为需求响应资源参与电能量和辅助服务市场。但是在这种模式下,需要基线来测量需求响应资源的实际绩效。下面主要从几个关键点来介绍NGR储能如何参与CAISO的电能量和辅助服务市场。 资质要求-对于NGR, 同其他发电机组一样,电储能必须满足CAISO的相关基本要求(例如,调度运行,遥测和计量规则等),以提供容量、电量和辅助服务。CAISO为满足Order 841规定将所有参与市场的发电侧最小规模改为100kW。如果NGR参与细分市场则必须满足相应市场的具体要求,这些要求也是技术中立的,例如,辅助服务市场和双边容量市场对于资源连续最短运行时间会有具体的要求。CAISO允许电储能根据自身运行特征,在报价时降低可调度容量,以满足相应市场的最短运行时间。 报价-在电能量市场上,电储能NGR可以提交电能量报价曲线,包括充电报价(-MW)和放电报价(+MW)(如下图),这种报价曲线允许电储能在一个单独的报价中,反映其经济可行的运行区间,储能可以作为发电、负荷或者两者同时参与市场。此外,电储能也可以提交“价差报价”(spread bid)在电价处于报价区间之外进行充电放电;或者自调度,只报量作为价格接受者。  图 1.  12MW储能资源的报价曲线示例 Licensed with permission from the California ISO. Any statements, conclusions, summaries or other commentaries expressed herein do not reflect the opinions or endorsement of the California ISO. (图1经加州ISO授权许可。本文所表达的任何陈述,结论,摘要或其他评论均不代表加州ISO的观点或认可) 物理和运行特征-电储能出力受到物理上下充放电容量限制和爬坡速率的影响,需要在这些限制下保证电池能够完成调度指令提供相应的服务。特别地,在运行过程中,电池应该有什么样的荷电状态(state…

Offshore wind should be seen as a joint European resource

by Zsuzsanna Pató Michael Hogan on

Offshore wind is a special resource. The fact that there is little legacy infrastructure, coupled with the impressive European ambition of expanding the current capacity of 12 GW to 300 GW by 2050, raises an important question: How can we develop only the minimum infrastructure needed, at lowest cost, and operate it to the maximum…

Choose Your Own Road Trip: A Toolkit for Transportation Electrification

by Camille Kadoch on

Electrification of the transportation sector provides an opportunity for states to save citizens money on fuel, improve the local economy, address national security concerns, improve public health and combat climate change. Some of these attributes have more urgency than ever, such as the need for local jobs and improved public health. But experience and studies…