With over a half-dozen environmental regulations expected in the next several years, many state energy regulators find themselves having to reach beyond their traditional regulatory boundaries to understand the effects of public health and environmental regulations on the energy sector. The EPA and regulated entities too are being asked to move beyond their typical modes of operation. This paper reviews new and pending water, solid waste, and air regulations and provides a variety of viewpoints for regulators to consider and build upon as they assess utility preparedness to respond to these challenges. Meeting this challenge requires up-to-date utility data and a methodical review of energy system “alternatives” specific to individual states and regions. The report reviews compliance alternatives, which include not only generation resources across the system, but also demand and delivery alternatives. With an understanding of available compliance options, utility regulators will be better equipped to identify choices that best suit their circumstances.