​This policy brief dives deeper into rate design for low- and moderate-income (LMI) ratepayers in New England. As always, effective rate design is crucial to achieving regulatory and public policy goals, but achieving broad societal policy goals need not come at the cost of burdening economically vulnerable LMI ratepayers. To design rates at levels customers can afford, regulators need better information about the options available for supporting LMI communities. One way to obtain that information is by establishing benchmarks that cross utility and state lines to evaluate electricity rates for LMI and all customers.