Much has been written about the meteoric rise of the Chinese and Indian economies, and it is well documented that this phenomenal growth has coincided with a massive expansion of thermoelectric power plants—power plants that either burn their fuels to generate electricity or that fission atoms in nuclear reactors. The process of thermoelectric power generation utilizes prodigious amounts of water, primarily for cooling purposes. Most of the existing, as well as the planned thermoelectric generators are heavily dependent on the assumption that water resources remain abundant, clean, and readily available. For instance, on a typical day, Chinese and Indian power plants withdraw more than 480 billion liters of freshwater—nearly twice the amount that passes over Niagara Falls in a 24-hour period. This massive use of water presents a critical constraint often overlooked in electricity and energy decision-making. Addressing the challenges that the reliance on water poses to electricity generation requires us to think more broadly about integrated resource planning, reliability challenges, and resource selection. The ability of India and China to manage its respective electricity-water nexus will have profound implications on each country’s economic growth, social stability, environmental quality, and energy security.