Partnering with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Exeter Associates, RAP prepared this paper for the Western Governors’ Association that explores approaches for reducing costs to integrate wind and solar in the Western U.S., barriers to adopting these cost-saving measures, and possible state actions. Drawing from existing studies and experience to date, the paper identifies nine ways Western states could reduce integration costs, including operational and market tools, as well as flexible demand and supply-side resources. The executive summary provides an overview of these approaches, assess costs, integration benefits, and level of certainty of these appraisals, and provides estimated timeframes to put these measures in place. The summary also includes recommendations for states to overcome barriers to implementation.

Download the full paper at from the Western Governors’ Association website.