Although individual utility companies own the power plants and lines that generate and carry electricity to consumers, many have joined regional transmission operators (RTOs), which coordinate resources over a broader geographic area to secure greater system reliability and reduce costs. RTOs (also called independent system operators or ISOs) typically span many states, and manage generating resources by “dispatching” power plants to start running as electricity demand increases and to stop as demand decreases. Power plants are dispatched based on cost (lowest cost first), regardless of where in the multi-state region they may be located. On September 11, 2015, veteran air and utility regulators David Littell from RAP and Doug Scott of Great Plains Institute, teamed up with Paul Sotkiewicz and Kari Evans of the RTO PJM to discuss how state Clean Power Plan decisions could affect power plant dispatch and emissions beyond state borders and across the RTO.