Insights from Our Experts

Standby Rates for Combined Heat and Power Need a Fresh Look

Combined heat and power (CHP) installations offer industrial and commercial owners stable energy prices, lower overall energy costs, and reliable power during grid outages. Under some electricity rates, CHP customers face confusing and potentially contradictory tariff conditions, leading to excessive costs for the back-up electricity and grid services provided by... Read More

Practical Solutions for Energy, Climate, and Air Quality in China

China’s power sector accounts for about a quarter of global coal consumption. The Chinese government’s economy-wide energy and environmental plans outlined in the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011–2015) and the new Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (2013–2017) call for large improvements in air quality and caps on coal consumption. Many polic... Read More


在睿博能源智库(RAP)、美国能源基金会(EF)和美国自然资源保护协会(NRDC)的共同委托下,三益(E3)咨询公司开发了一款针对中国用户的终端能效评估计算器软件。该计算器自带负荷数据库和能效措施数据库。前者可生成商业、工业和居民的终端用电负荷图;后者包含了大... Read More

Energy Efficiency and the Energiewende

Although Energiewende policies focus primarily on the nuclear phase-out, ramping up the share of renewables in the power mix, and corresponding grid infrastructure needs, many people are looking for solutions to the “affordability” challenges of the Energiewende due to rising concerns over transition costs. Removing market barriers to energy efficiency and es... Read More

Increasing System Flexibility in Germany Through Demand Response

The Energiewende targets for increasing renewable energy resources in Germany to at least 50% by 2030 will require increased demand-side flexibility to ensure system reliability. Incorporating dispatchable demand response resources into the energy market can increase system flexibility and ensure reliability at lower cost. As described in RAP’s Demand Respons... Read More

Overcoming Barriers to Distributed Resources Through Education and Dialogue

The Mid-Atlantic Distributed Resources Initiative (MADRI) identifies and remedies retail barriers to the deployment of distributed generation, demand response, and energy efficiency in the Mid-Atlantic region. Consistent with RAP’s vision for a clean, flexible electricity system, MADRI is guided by the belief that distributed resources should compete on equ... Read More

Applying “Beyond Capacity Market” Thinking to Energiewende Reliability Challenges

At the heart of the challenge for the Energiewende will be to continuously balance consumer demand with fluctuating electricity production from variable renewable resources, such as wind and solar. This will require flexibility on both the supply side and the demand side. New thinking about market design and investment incentives for flexible capabilities, not ju... Read More

Making Germany’s “Energiewende” (Energy Transition) a Reality

Germany’s Energiewende represents a national commitment to meet aggressive economy-wide decarbonization targets and to transform the German power sector from a reliance on nuclear and coal to renewable resources within the next four decades. Germany is unique in the European Union in arriving at a consensus among ruling and opposition parties for a full nuc... Read More

Integrating Renewable Energy Resources

The resources below are offered as part of our Complying with Environmental Regulations Knowledge Management Series. The following papers focus on developing renewable energy resources and integrating those resources on the grid. Dynamic Transfers for Renewable Energy in the Western Interconnection: A dynamic transfer is a coordinated transfer of firm energy... Read More

Energy Efficiency Resources

The resources below are offered as part of our Complying with Environmental Regulations Knowledge Management Series. The following papers provide information on policies to capture energy efficiency and demand-side resources, develop effective energy efficiency programs, and fully value the benefits and costs of demand-side resources. Demand Response as a Po... Read More