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RAP’s Response to Coronavirus

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With the global situation changing daily, we feel it’s important to communicate how we plan to support our work during the coronavirus pandemic

  • We are monitoring and following the guidance of global authorities, including the WHO, and appropriate health ministries in each of the countries in which we work.
  • Our staff are equipped with the technology and systems to work from home and we are implementing a work-at-home approach where necessary.
  • We will continue to perform vital work remotely, with sensitivities to local conditions.
  • We are limiting travel and will follow the recommendations of applicable governments.

Please reach out to your RAP contact if you have any questions or concerns.

We hope our friends and colleagues around the world stay well during this challenging time.

Rich Sedano

President and CEO

国际电力市场改革季报

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国际电力改革季报回顾近期全球电力行业政策和监管的最新进展,并摘选一些我们认为对中国电力市场改革特别相关的进展,以供参考。

 

纽约:将碳成本纳入电力批发市场和调度过程:负责监管批发市场并在该州扮演“调度中心”和 “现货市场交易中心”角色的纽约独立系统运营商(NYISO)正在开发一种机制,将碳成本纳入系统运营。新机制将建立在已经使用的“经济调度”方法的基础上。和以前一样,NYISO将收集与每个可用资源相关的可变成本的信息,进行实时更新调度的“优先顺序” – 但现在NYISO将基于“社会的全部成本”,通过估算碳成本来增加每个化石能源发电机组的出价。如果该提案获得批准,纽约ISO市场将是第一个采用这种具体方法的区域批发市场。然而,作为碳排放限额和贸易计划的一部分,东北部许多州和加利福尼亚州已经在调度决策中包含了碳成本。从这个角度看,这与中国改革电力调度工作高度相关,实施现货市场的工作应以经济调度为中心。经济调度的核心逻辑是按照可变成本(理想的算法是可变成本包括社会排放成本)来安排调度。

英国:更新电网公司的商业模式:英国监管机构OFGEM最近一直在就输配电监管征求公众意见。多年来,英国已经开发了一个名为RIIO(收入=激励+创新+产出)的框架,其中包括几个重要的指标,如客户服务,网络拥堵成本和减排,激励电网公司通过良好绩效来盈利。现在, RIIO-2包含了额外的机制,鼓励电网公司追求终端用户能源效率项目的投资,作为“电杆和电线”投资的低成本替代方案。这种方法也在包括美国各州在内的世界其他地区采用,在输配电电价改革不断取得进展的中国也值得考虑。

美国西部:区域批发市场发展:美国西部有超过35个传统上独立的平衡区域,而且许多区域相当小。从2014年开始,这些平衡区域逐渐融入新的区域“能源不平衡市场”(EIM),实现了在更大的地域范围内平滑可再生能源出力波动性及消纳可再生能源。到目前为止,EIM已经是一个实时(小时内)市场,但最近几个月,政府机构和利益相关方也一直在努力建立一个日前区域市场(可能会在15分钟内进行)。在中国,开展广泛的区域(多省)综合现货市场也可能降低成本并促进可再生能源的消纳。

印度:全国电力现货市场的新推动力中央电力监管委员会(CERC)已着手重建国家电力现货市场。 CERC的提案旨在优化现有国家资产的使用,如发电厂,输电线路和可再生能源发电,从而降低电力采购成本,提高效率,并整合更高的可再生能源发电份额。印度的市场改革工作对解决中国的问题有着启示作用,包括转向经济调度的需求和避免依赖“物理”性长期合同而阻碍电力部门的运营灵活性。

美国:照明能效标准的潜在挫折:2月,美国能源部(DOE)发布了一项计划,要求撤销之前扩大灯泡能效标准的计划。提高照明效率的措施通常可以为客户节省资金,并为整个社会带来净经济效益。美国能源效率经济委员会批评了这项新计划,并预估这种倒退将使每个家庭每年支出约100美元,还将产生由空气污染造成的健康问题,以及由此带来的碳排放量约等于700万辆汽车的典型排放量等负面影响。能源部的新计划可能会面临美国法院的挑战。与此同时,中国的节能标准和能效项目的持续改进彰显其全球领导地位,且已经看到显著节能成果。

弗吉尼亚州:综合资源规划检验最低成本资源选择:在美国,综合资源规划(IRP)始于20世纪80年代,许多州现在以各种形式开展IRP。在IRP下,“公共事业单位”(电力公司)通过在平等的基础上评估可用的供给侧和需求侧资源,为满足客户能源服务需求制定了具有成本效益的计划。将需求侧资源(尤其是终端能效)纳入流程至关重要,因为用户节能项目通常是新建发电厂的低成本和更清洁的替代方案。去年12月,弗吉尼亚州政府电力监管委员会拒绝了该州主要公共事业单位的IRP草案,并要求该单位对“最低成本”方案进行更细致的分析,包括能效资源。这只是一个IRP流程的例子而已,我们提出这个例子是因为IRP 逻辑是一个电力改革的基本原则。中国国家能源局于2016年发布的《电力规划管理办法》为中国的规划工作指明了这些原则

PJM:市场监测机构要求联邦能源监管委员会修改市场规则:2月,PJM的独立市场监测机构向FERC正式提出修改市场规则的具体要求,以减少发电商操纵市场(市场力)的特定手段。市场监测机构在PJM和其他“RTO / ISO”市场(大致类似于中国正在开发的现货市场)中发挥着重要作用。这条新闻展示一个典型例子:在市场监测机构的所有权力和责任外,他们可以直接要求某些市场流程和规则的改变,以保证市场具有竞争性且运作良好。 监测机构通常以公开报告,与“RTO / ISO“官员和利益相关者的讨论或对FERC的正式请求的形式进行此操作。中国目前正在建设现货市场,可以考虑建立独立的市场监测机构

3月14日, Monitoring Analytics 有限责任公司(PJM独立市场监测机构)发布了2018年PJM市场状况报告。该报告是独立市场监测报告对PJM在13个州和哥伦比亚特区管理的批发电力市场竞争力的评估。该报告包括对每个PJM市场的市场结构,参与者行为和市场表现的分析。年度“市场状况报告”包含关于PJM市场运作的海量数据,它解释了数据透明度对于市场成功运作至关重要,这一点对于中国建设电力市场有重要的参考意义。美国所有的区域“ISO/RTO”批发市场都有内部或者外部的市场监测机构,负责发布季度或年度分析报告。

欧盟:欧洲理事会支持使欧洲的电力市场更具竞争力和以消费者为中心:欧盟正在更新其电力市场规则,以改善市场的运作,赋予消费者更多的权利,并为清洁能源转型铺平道路。欧盟成员国于2019年1月18日批准了与欧洲议会就电力市场设计的指令和监管达成的两个协议。电力指令的主要内容包括为用户更积极地参与市场提供更多机会,价格准备金。储能参与市场和所有权问题。电力监管包含促进电力跨境贸易的电力交易规则,以及成员国建立共同容量机制的条件。中国也在开展电力零售市场竞争,欧盟在维护公平开放的市场竞争秩序的同时给消费者更多市场机会的做法对中国有借鉴意义。

Market-based instruments for energy efficiency: a global review

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There is an increasing interest in the role so-called market-based instruments (MBIs) can play to deliver energy efficiency across the world. Their rising popularity among policymakers owes, in part, to their characteristics. They tend to be less prescriptive than traditional regulations and grants because they focus on the energy savings versus the means of delivery. Furthermore, policymakers’ objectives can potentially be met more cost-effectively through the direct involvement of profit-maximising companies, either as obligated parties or auction bidders. In the case of obligations, the costs to utilities do not appear on government balance sheets, as utilities pass on their costs to consumers through energy prices.

While these characteristics can also create some challenges for policymakers, the uptake of MBIs has not yet slowed as a result. The freedom given to private sector actors to discover the most cost-effective means of generating energy savings can lead to delivery through a concentration of particular technology types, especially if their costs decline quickly. This puts a premium on good programme design, with regular evidence-based reviews and, in many cases, limits on the amount of energy savings that can be claimed by individual technologies. Another issue related to obligations is that instruments funded through energy prices are potentially more regressive than those funded through general taxation, given that poorer households tend to consume more energy as a proportion of their incomes. A number of programmes have elements targeted at fuel poor households, while other policymakers have employed explicit redistribution policies aimed at lowering the energy bills paid by poorer households.

In a groundbreaking effort, the authors provide a global assessment of the impact of MBIs for energy efficiency in terms of investment, energy savings, and cost-effectiveness. Our analysis of 52 different instruments from across the world shows that MBIs are becoming increasingly important in terms of their number, global coverage, energy savings, and investment triggered.

睿博能源智库欧洲项目主任Jan Rosenow博士当选ECEEE理事会成员

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近日,欧洲能效经济委员会(ECEEE)任命 睿博能源智库(RAP)欧洲项目主任Jan Rosenow博士担任理事会成员。

ECEEE是欧洲最大,历史最悠久的专注于能效的非政府组织,Rosenow博士将与其他11名理事会成员共同承担管理和指导其发展的职责。

ECEEE执行董事Nils Borg先生对Rosenow博士的任命表示欢迎,并强调“Jan对监管和欧洲能源政策有着深入的了解。他还有政策研究和参与政策制定的背景。他曾多次参加ECEEE举办的‘夏季研讨会’,对ECEEE非常了解。”

Rosenow博士说, “ECEEE在能源转型和低碳化进程中起着至关重要的作用,我很高兴和他们一起工作多年,也很荣幸被赋予这个重要的角色。”

ECEEE简介:

ECEEE是独立的机构,面向政策制定者,研究机构以及活跃于该行业的相关方推广能效。ECEEE提供政策分析和研究,促进合作和行业沟通,并举办两年一度的旗舰活动—“夏季研讨会”。

点击可跳至ECEEE官宣.

Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation: Volume 1 (Introduction—Global Lessons for Success)

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​This report, the first of three volumes of Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation: Emphasizing Utility Performance to Unleash Power Sector Innovation, examines the concept of performance-based regulation (PBR) and how it can provide a framework to connect goals, targets, and measures to utility performance or executive compensation. It examines leading examples of PBR from around the world, including the United Kingdom’s Revenue = Incentives + Innovation + Outputs (RIIO) program, New York’s Reforming the Energy Vision (REV), and other successful initiatives in Denmark, Mexico, and South Africa. It also examines what regulators have learned from experience with early forms of PBR, finding that incentive measures need to be simply designed, predictable, clearly measurable, and sized in alignment with desired results. Rewards or penalties may be set too high or low initially, so a successful PBR program also needs to be adjustable.

The Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation full report was published in 2017 as a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and RAP, part of the 21st Century Power Partnership initiative.

Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation: Volume 2 (Primer—Essential Elements of Design and Implementation)

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​This report, the second of three volumes of Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation: Emphasizing Utility Performance to Unleash Power Sector Innovation, focuses on best practices for design, development, and implementation of performance-based regulation mechanisms. It begins by laying the groundwork for understanding the incentives inherent in institutional arrangements, especially utility composition and ownership structure. It then builds on that understanding to outline best practices for the development and design of successful performance-based regulation (PBR) mechanisms. There is no “cookbook” to create a PBR mechanism, because specific jurisdictional considerations require modification and thought, but the report lists various PBR design elements that could be incorporated into specific jurisdictions.

The Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation full report was published in 2017 as a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and RAP, part of the 21st Century Power Partnership initiative.​

Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation: Volume 3 (Innovative Examples from Around the World)

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​This report, the final of three volumes of Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation: Emphasizing Utility Performance to Unleash Power Sector Innovation, focuses on how performance-based regulation (PBR) can be used to navigate an era of rapid technological change in the power sector. It examines the trends seen in this rapid change, including the penetration of disruptive technologies, decentralization of supply, increased activity on the demand side, and the growth of “smart” networks. It then considers examples of innovative PBR designs from around the world, both theoretical and real-world, to demonstrate the wide range of ways performance mechanisms can be used and the variety of goals they can achieve.

The Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation full report was published in 2017 as a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and RAP, part of the 21st Century Power Partnership initiative.

Überblick über die australische Energiepolitik

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Die australische Energiepolitik ist stark polarisiert und befindet sich derzeit in einer Umbruchphase. Während die reichlich vorhandenen Rohstoffe in der Vergangenheit für niedrige Energiepreise gesorgt haben, sind die Endverbraucherpreise für Strom und Gas in den letzten Jahren drastisch gestiegen. Gleichzeitig erleben manche Regionen Australiens mit einem wachsenden Anteil Erneuerbarer Energien fundamentale Veränderungen in ihren Stromsystemen. Wiederholte Stromausfälle sorgen für eine andauernde Debatte in der Öffentlichkeit und in der Politik. In diesem Gutachten analysieren die Autoren die australische Energiepolitik und zeigen dabei die Unterschiede und Parallelen zu Deutschland bzw. Europa.

Diese Studie wurde im Rahmen des Vorhabens „Unterstützung des Energiedialoges mit den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika (USA) und dem US-Bundesstaat Kalifornien sowie die Unterstützung der bilateralen Energiebeziehungen mit Kanada, Australien und Neuseeland“ im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle (BAFA) und auf Anfrage des Referats IIA1 des Bundesministeriums für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi) erstellt. Sie dient als Grundlage für die Identifizierung von Kooperationsmöglichkeiten und Dialogschwerpunkten im Rahmen des Energiedialoges. Diesbezügliche vertrauliche Informationen und Empfehlungen wurden für diese Veröffentlichung entfernt. Die Verantwortung für den Inhalt liegt ausschließlich bei den Autoren.

Designing Distributed Generation in Mexico

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Mexico’s energy reform will have far-reaching effects on how people produce and consume electricity in the country. Market liberalization will open the door to an increasing number of options for Mexican residential, commercial, and industrial consumers, and will encourage the adoption of distributed generation (DG), which for Mexico includes generators of less than 500 kilowatts (kW) of capacity connected to the distribution network. This report, published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, seeks to provide guidance to Mexican officials on designing DG economic and regulatory policies.

The report summarizes the current energy policy context in Mexico and describes opportunities and barriers for DG in the country. It surveys DG policies that have been implemented in other countries and outlines the sources of value that should be considered in evaluating mature “DG 2.0” policies, including their cost-effectiveness and alternative rate designs. Finally, it examines the central role of rate design and pricing in developing a set of policy options to encourage expanded and cost‐effective DG adoption.

Market-based Instruments for Energy Efficiency: Policy Choice and Design

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Finding ways to unlock more energy efficiency is a priority for countries looking to meet their energy policy goals. Efficiency is central to making progress on decarbonisation and energy security, while also fostering economic and social development. At the same time, many market failures are preventing realisation of the full potential that energy efficiency offers. For these reasons, there is growing interest in the role that markets can play in delivering cost-effective efficiency gains and reducing the need for direct government expenditure. This report provides the first global overview by the International Energy Agency (IEA) of growth in the use of market-based instruments (MBIs), their impact, and the key policy design issues associated with their successful implementation.

MBIs offer the potential for policymakers to access more cost-effective efficiency gains. All energy efficiency policy instruments interact with the market to some extent, whether by influencing investment decisions or affecting the way in which we consume energy. What distinguishes MBIs from other instruments is that, by giving market actors the freedom to choose the measures and delivery routes that work best for them, the market as a whole is able to discover the most cost-effective way to achieve the outcomes set out by policymakers. That freedom puts a premium on good policy design and implementation, including strong monitoring, verification and evaluation.

Key policy design issues for MBIs include:

  • MBIs must work within existing policy frameworks;
  • Both obligations and auctions can be successful if the rules are well crafted;
  • Flexible programme design that permits savings to be delivered across a broad range of customers and fuels has proven to be a sound approach;
  • MBIs can be designed to achieve specific policy goals;
  • Programme rules should be as simple as possible but as complex as necessary;
  • Monitoring, verification, and evaluation are vital for the integrity of programmes;
  • Trading adds an additional layer of complexity and sometimes extra cost to obligation programmes. These may exceed the benefits;
  • Auctions can be structured to mitigate the risk of overpayment and reduce administration costs; and
  • Capacity auctions reward energy efficiency for one of the multiple benefits it provides, but cannot be relied upon to drive the uptake of efficiency on their own.

The number of MBIs has quadrupled over the last ten years, while investment stimulated by them has risen six-fold, to USD 26 billion in 2015. The coverage and strength of MBIs is expected to grow, as more jurisdictions consider obligations and auctions as ways to engage markets to deliver the efficiency savings needed to meet policy goals, whether they are energy system adequacy requirements, climate commitments, energy poverty reduction, or industrial productivity. And, as this report shows, sharing knowledge across jurisdictions will be central to the success of the next wave of policymaking in this area.

Dr. Jan Rosenow of the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) was the lead researcher and principal author of the report, alongside Richard Cowart (RAP), Samuel Thomas (IEA), and Fabian Kreuzer (IEA).